Assignments USC Upstate

Spring 2014 Project #3 

Illustrator Creating a logo

For this assignment, you are to take your name, nickname or initials and create your first personal logo from it. You may choose just your first name or last name or first name and last initial. You have the creative freedom to choose what name you are going to use. You also have another option of creating a logo, that is only if you have another company or business, such as reworking furniture or something like that. I don’t want you to create a logo for a business you think you might own. This second option must be pre-approved by your instructor before you begin.

This project must begin in your sketch books, you must take four sketches and move to the 4 quadrants. We will in class review all 4 and help you choose the best one in class to redo and submit one for the final portfolio at the end of the semester. (1 point)

Must be created in Illustrator. You are NOT allowed to use Photoshop or InDesign (1 point)

Page size must be set up as 12’ x 12’ and set up with 4 Quadrants such as example shown. (1 point)

logo quadrant

Final File extension must be saved as an .ai file and a pdf file. Save file as Your last name.logo.ai &

Your last name.logo.pdf  (Remember before you save as a .pdf file you must  select all logos and create outlines only on .pdf file) (1 point)

Colors: You may only use 2 colors and they must be pms/spot colors. On the final logo sheet you must show pms (Pantone Management System) # of the 2 colors used. All 4 quadrants must use those same 2 colors. (1 point)

Use all the illustrator effects that don’t create or turn your logo drawings into a raster images. The logo must remain a vector file. Think about positive and negative space, playing with shapes and consider adding a graphic element to the logo. Please research logos on the web, visit bookstores and look at the logo books and be aware of all logos around you good & bad, so you know what you like and don’t like for your first logo. (1 point)

You may not have any links attached or linked in any of your final 4 logos. (1 point)

Overall look, design concepts such as alignment used, consistent look and feel, rhythm, balance, point, line plane, texture, color, scale, layers Graphic Design Basics, see the link below.
http://gdbasics.com (2 points)

Must be uploaded to Dropbox for final critique in your personal folder in a new folder titled logo and in that folder you will have your .ai file, .pdf file and a picture of the sketches all in the one folder. (1 point)

Make sure you keep in mind the following: target audience and possible applications or uses of your logo in your overall design

If you have any questions or you are confused by this assignment, please do not hesitate to ask.  I am available by email, twitter and appointment to discuss.

Videos to watch for illustrator

http://tv.adobe.com/show/learn-illustrator-cc/

Watch all

Essential Tasks

Selections in Illustrator

Essential Tasks -artwork

Essential Tasks- Text

Brushes in Illustrator

10 Points total

 

Spring 2014 • Project 2

T/TH class due Tues. Feb. 24 MWF class due Wed. Feb 26

T/TH class due Tues. Feb. 24
MWF class due Wed. Feb 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring 2014 • Project 1

T/Th due Thursday, Feb. 13  MWF due Friday, Feb 14

You will create 3 new files in Indesign. Find a hi-res logo of interest online and place it on the Business card, 8.5 x 11 letterhead and #10 business envelope to make a complete business system file. You must utilize placed images. You may copy and paste images and text boxes onto the letterhead and #10 envelope from the original designed business card. All three pieces must be off the same business. Meaning you can’t have a letterhead of McD’s and a business card of Hershey’s.  Think logically about what is needed on each piece. Address, phone number, email address, fax number, All of these can be real or made up. Think about the fonts, serif or san serif, the size of the fonts. Perhaps adding social media elements such as facebook or twitter links and anything else to make it work. Remember to keep design in mind and possibly research online examples of all three to get ideas. All files can be saved as indesign files on your end, but must also be saved as a pdf file in dropbox for me to grade.

Maximum Points: 10

margins (1 point)

Business Card (2” x 3.5” or 3.5” x 2’) margins 1/8 of an inch around all 4 sides.

Letterhead (8.5” x 11”) margins 1.5 ”at top, 1 ” L, R & bottom.

#10 business envelope (4 1/8” x 9 1/2”) margins 1/2”each side.

hi-resolution, non-fuzzy or non-bit-mapped & non-stretched images (1 point)

You will create 3 new files in Indesign. Find a hi-res logo of interest online and place it on the Business card, 8.5 x 11 letterhead and #10 business envelope to make a complete business system file.

Placed images and theme (2 points)

You must utilize placed images. And you must follow a theme of the same business on all three pieces with the same consistent look and feel.

Address (1 point)

Think logically about what is needed on each piece. Address,

phone number, email address, fax number, All of these can be real or made up.

Fonts (1 point) 

Think about the fonts, serif or san serif, the size of the fonts.

Do you utilize both for contrast?

Social Media (1 point) 

Adding social media elements or icons such as Pinterest, Linkedin FB or twitter. Remember to keep design in mind. Keep tacky out of design

Saving & Naming the files (1 point)

All files saved as indesign files on your end, but must also be

saved as a pdf file in Dropbox for me to grade.

Please save the files in the following manner

lastname_SP14_#10 (for #10 envelope)

lastname_SP14_BC (for biz card)

lastname_SP14_LH (for letterhead)

Overall look, design concepts such as alignment used, consistent look and feel, rhythm, balance, point, line, 

plane, texture, color, scale, layers, Everything that in the assigned book (2 points)

Final Portfolio Project • Fall 2013

Here are the guidelines for the final portfolio and presentation:

Must include the following Projects. The project will be graded on the changes you made from the first critique. Did you follow advice from your peers given to you in class, using the notes or advice given to you by the teacher and your own knowledge of everything learned this semester. Feel free to change your business system using your own logo. Or the magazine layout fix your photos in photoshop, then place them into Indesign.

1. InDesign Business System (must have all three letterhead, BC, #10)

2. Magazine 3 page spread

3. logo

4. CD package

Portfolio is worth 40 points of final grade.

Process of grading:

5 points for the size of the portfolio being 16×16 and you used 6 pages

5 points for it being a hi-res pdf and uploaded to Dropbox on time

30 points that there was significant changes and better changes from the original project

to this portfolio. Obviously if you received an A there wouldn’t be many changes.

Feel free to get mini critiques from your peers before you set changes in the

final portfolio.

SART 108 T/TH class final portfolio is due at 12:15 pm on Thursday December 5, 2013

SART 108 MWF class final portfolio is due at 12:00 pm on Friday, December 6, 2013

Please create a “Portfolio” folder in your dropbox folder. I only want a hi-res PDF in there. Title it

YourlastnameFA13.pdf (no low-res or bitmapped looking portfolio’s) Make sure before you

export as a PDF all your links and fonts are connected and match up.

Set up the Indesign file as:

16” x 16”

total 6 pages

Page 1 is cover page and you must have information on there as you would if sending to a job.

Pages 2-6 are your projects. The magazine layout will use 2 pages so plan accordingly. You can set up the portfolio however you want. You can go in order of our projects or completely change it up with what you think looks good.

CD Project

Upstate MWF class due Fri 11/22

Upstate T/TH class due Th 11/21

For this assignment, you were asked by your favorite existing band or musician to recreate one of their existing CD’s. The CD package must contain all elements to be a finished project. I will not accept parts of the CD. I will provide the templates for guides to design in as well as the clear jeweled case to mock up the printed artwork in. Once the CD’s are mocked up and looking good, they must be photographed as I had shown from examples. Expect to spend additional time on this project outside of class. Keep your files organized and linked. The templates were emailed to you.

Must include all 3 componets: (6 points)

1. inside 4 panel booklet

2. back cover with spine

3. CD

Must use all three applications: Photoshop, Illustrator

and InDesign (5 points)

Follwed the templates provided for all 3. (5 points)

Final File extension must be saved as a .jpg file and a .pdf file.

Save file as Your last name.CD.jpg &

Your last name.CD.pdf 

(2 points)

Craft/neatness of printed piece mocked-up piece (5 points)

Overall look, design concepts such as alignment used,

consistent look and feel, rhythm, balance, point,

line plane, texture, color, scale, layers (5 points)

Must be uploaded to Dropbox for final critique in your

personal folder in a new folder titled CD and in that folder

you will have organized files with your .jpg files, .pdf files and

photos of final mocked up CD

(2 points)

Make sure you keep in mind the following: target audience, make this look like an actual CD. Look at them online think about adding bar codes and social media. Take a look at other students past work at http://www.bridgetkirkland.com

If you have any questions or you are confused by this assignment, please do not hesitate to ask. 

I am available by email, twitter and appointment to discuss.

30 Points total

Retouching Images

There are many reasons that one may wish to retouch images in PhotoShop.  Vintage photographs are often damaged from age, improper storage, or the elements.  Film or prints that are scanned attract dust particles much in the same manner as film in the developing process.  Once an image is digitized, manipulation of the digital file is usually necessary. 

Technique:

Improving image tone with levels

In the following exercise we will learn how to bring back to life images that have lost their dynamic range through time. This is most helpful when using old photographs or can be used with images that were not properly printed in the darkroom.  A vintage tintype photograph was chosen for this example because tintypes typically are much darker than the average photograph and lack detail. The technique demonstrates the range of possibilities available using Black and White point sliders.  A vintage tintype was scanned using a flatbed scanner (tintype.jpg).

  1. Open the tintype.jpg image from the folder
  2. Crop the image to remove unwanted areas from the image
  3. Add a Levels adjustment layer by clicking the Add Adjustment Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette. Or select Layer>New Adjustment>Layer.
  4. Move the white point slider just inside the lightest image information.
  5. Move the black point slider until it falls just inside the darkest image information.
  6. The mid-tone gamma slider then can be used to lighten the overall image.

Damage Control & Repair

Patch Tool or Clone Stamp?

  • The Patch Tool samples texture color and luminosity of the source area.
  • The Clone Stamp literally duplicates the clone source and paints over the original information

-To create a seamless transition from the retouched areas of the image the Healing Brush adds a 10-12 pixel spread to the brush, it is for this reason you should use a hard edge brush when using this tool.  The Clone Stamp is more effective with a softer brush.

-The Healing Brush can only work on layers with actual pixel information. It works better with short brush stokes which allow the program time to calculate individual areas and correct.

-When working along edges that contain white use the clone tool so that you will not be sampling white from the edge.

Using the Clone Stamp:

  1. Select the Clone Stamp tool from the left side of the toolbox or by pressing the “S” key on the keyboard.
  2. Identify an area in which you wish to replace the tone with a matching tone such as a dust spot. Pick a brush that is approximately the same size as the area to be filled with a soft edge.
  3. Move the cursor over an adjacent area that contains a value that is similar to the value you wish to replace. Sample the color by holding down the CMD key (PC: Alt) and click the mouse. This color will appear as the new foreground color in the toolbox.
  4. Move the cursor over the area that you wish to replace the value and click the mouse.  The value will now be replaced with new value.  Changing the opacity in brush dialog box to 50% or lower will allow multiple applications of tone.  Building up tone through multiple applications allows the tone to be applied in a more controlled manner such as spotting.

Using the Patch Tool:

  1. Select the patch tool from the left side of the toolbox or by pressing the “J” key on the keyboard.  Make sure that Destination is checked in the dialog box.
  2. Identify an area in which you wish to replace the tone with a matching tone or in which you wish to smooth out values.
  3. Move the cursor over an adjacent area that contains a value that is similar to the value you wish to replace.  Click and hold down the mouse cursor and create a shape similar to the one that you wish to replace.  Move the cursor over the shape now defined by ‘marching ants’. Click and drag the shape defined by the ‘marching ants’ shape to the location that you wish to cover.  Similar to use of the Clone Stamp, repeated smaller applications are preferred to one large application.

Space & Depth-of-field

We generally perceive objects that are fairly close to us as sharp and in focus, objects that are far away from us seem less perceptible to the human eye. The only exception to this might be objects viewed in very close proximity to our eyes. A piece of paper that is viewed very close to our face usually causes us to squint our eyes to obtain focus. Squinting forces our pupils to contract or close forming a smaller opening in the center of the eye, this smaller opening or aperture forces the various rays of light that form the image to come into focus.

In photography we use sharpness and focus as a means of creating a spatial relationship with the viewer. Depth-of-field is a technique that allows the photographer the ability to control what is in focus and what is out of focus (blur). The use of a small opening or aperture (f16) allows more of the objects in the image to appear as sharp.  Larger openings or apertures (f 4) create images in which only the object that was focused upon may appear sharp and other objects appear less in focus as their distance from the object in focus increases. Apertures are designated by a lower-case italicized f ( to avoid confusion with shutter speed numbers The numbers denote the proportion of potential light that the lens can deliver that will strike the image sensor. An aperture such as f4 delivers 1/4 of the maximum light that is available; an aperture of f16 will deliver 1/16th of the light available for image creation. An image renders all the objects as sharp and in focus possesses a large depth-of-field.  Images with only a small amount of focus on a defined spot are said to have shallow depth-of-field

Sharpness or Depth-of-field increases in a ratio of 1/3 in the front & 2/3 in the rear of a subject or in other words a greater amount of sharpness is created behind the subject than in front of the subject.  The closer we are to objects the more shallow the depth-of-field, the farther away we are from objects the greater the depth-of-field and the less the perception of differences in sharpness between objects.

Technique: 

Focus Vignette Effect

  • Make two copies of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Make the top layer (Layer 1 copy) inactive by clicking on the eye icon to the left of the layer in the layers palette.
  • Make the center layer active by clicking on Layer 1 in the layers palette. Using the main menu bar select Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur to give the image the amount of blur you desire. Sliding the Radius Slider will create more or less blur. The higher the number of pixels the greater the blur. (Note: checking & un-checking the Preview box will let you view the changes) When you are satisfied click OK.
  • Make the top layer active by clicking on Layer 1 copy in the layers palette. Select the area you would like to have in focus defining the area using one of the marquee or lasso tools in the top left of the toolbox. Using the main menu bar click on Select > Feather and select a feather radius of 25 pixels, then click OK. (Note: the larger the radius the softer the transition from sharpness to softness. In addition, a larger file needs a larger radius to effect the same gradation as a smaller file).
  • Add a Layer Mask by clicking on the layer mask icon at the bottom of layers palette.
  • This effect can often be more realistic if performed several times to diminish focus gradually or to create a change in blur between foreground and background objects. Do this by saving the image under a different name then flattening the image under the layer menu. You can recreate this effect again and again once an image is flattened.

Variation using Box Blur in later editions of Photoshop

  • Open an image in Photoshop. Double click on the background layer in the layers palette. When New Layer dialog both appears with Layer 0, click OK to make the background layer an active layer.
  • Select the area you wish to remain in focus using one of the selection tools (marquee, lasso, or quick).
  • Go to the Select Menu at the top and click on Inverse to reverse the selected area.
  • Go to the Select Menu at the top and click on Modify>Feather>Feather Radius to adjust the amount of feathering.
  • Go to the Filter Menu and select Filter>Box Blur>Radius.
  • Use ‘Save As’ to save the changes under a new file name and leave the original unchanged.

Motion Blur

We looked at how through the use of depth-of-field and the focus vignette effect images are often more effective in conveying a message if less of the image is sharp and in focus. Creating areas of the image that are sharp and in focus against regions that are blurred heightens visual interest through the use of hard-line/soft-line. Motion and speed can have a similar effect on photographic images by creating areas of blur that contrast against the crispness of static objects.  Traditional photographic techniques rely primarily on the use of shutter-speed to obtain images that produce the right amount of blur against combined with relative degree of sharpness.  Producing these images can be quite time consuming as a number of factors must be considered; the shutter-speed, speed of the moving object, and whether or not the camera is on a tripod. A fast shutter-speed will produce a crisp image that freezes the action, but this does not show motion, it is the antithesis of motion. Blur is an essential tool in conveying the feeling of motion and speed to the viewer. Two photographic techniques are most often used to achieve this effect: 1) The blur of an object in motion in contrast to the sharpness of a static object.

2) Tracking a moving object in the camera viewfinder while using a slow shutter-speed (panning) to produce a relatively sharp moving object in contrast to a blurred background.

 

Technique:

Motion Blur Effect

  • Make a copy of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Under the Filter menu select Blur > Motion Blur. A dialog box will appear with both an angle clock and a distance slider.
  • Use the clock to set the angle (direction) of motion. Generally we would set this angle parallel to the angle of motion of the object in the image. Changing the numeric degrees in the dialog box can make slight changes to the angle. The distance slider will lengthen or shorten the length of the blur. Click OK when you are satisfied.
  • Hold down the Option Key (PC: Alt-key) while clicking on the layer mask icon in the bottom of the layers palette.
  • Push the “X” key on the keyboard to make the foreground color in the toolbox ‘white’.
  • Select a brush with a soft edge from the toolbox and paint on the areas where you want to apply the motion blur.  You may wish to slide the opacity slider down to 50% to apply the effect in a more gradual manner.

Panning Effect

  • Make two copies of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Make the top layer (Layer 1 copy) inactive by clicking on the eye icon to the left of the layer in the layers palette.
  • Make the center layer active by clicking on Layer 1 in the layers palette. Using the main menu bar select Filter > Blur > Motion Blur. A dialog box will appear with both an angle clock and a distance slider.
  • Use the clock to set the angle (direction) of motion. Generally we would set this angle parallel to the angle of motion of the object in the image. Changing the numeric degrees in the dialog box can make slight changes to the angle. The distance slider will lengthen or shorten the length of the blur. Click OK when you are satisfied.

Make the top layer active by clicking on Layer 1 copy in the layers palette. Select the area you would like to have in focus defining the area using one of the marquee or lasso tools in the top left of the toolbox. Add a Layer Mask by clicking on the layer mask icon at the bottom of layers palette.

FALL 2013 ASSIGNMENTS

Videos to watch for illustrator

http://tv.adobe.com/show/learn-illustrator-cc/

Watch all

Essential Tasks

Selections in Illustrator

Essential Tasks -artwork

Essential Tasks- Text

Brushes in Illustrator

Fall 2013 Project #4 

Illustrator Creating a logo

For this assignment, you are to take your name, nickname or initials and create your first personal logo from it. You may choose just your first name or last name or first name and last initial. You have the creative freedom to choose what name you are going to use. You also have another option of creating a logo, that is only if you have another company or business, such as reworking furniture or something like that. I don’t want you to create a logo for a business you think you might own. This second option must be pre-approved by your instructor before you begin.

This project must begin in your sketch books, you must take four sketches and move to the 4 quadrants. We will in class review all 4 and help you choose the best one in class to redo and submit one for the final portfolio at the end of the semester. (1 point)

Must be created in Illustrator. You are NOT allowed to use Photoshop or InDesign (1 point)

Page size must be set up as 12’ x 12’ and set up with 4 Quadrants such as example shown. (1 point)

logo quadrant

Final File extension must be saved as an .ai file and a pdf file. Save file as Your last name.logo.ai &

Your last name.logo.pdf  (Remember before you save as a .pdf file you must  select all logos and create outlines only on .pdf file) (1 point)

Colors: You may only use 2 colors and they must be pms/spot colors. On the final logo sheet you must show pms (Pantone Management System) # of the 2 colors used. All 4 quadrants must use those same 2 colors. (1 point)

Use all the illustrator effects that don’t create or turn your logo drawings into a raster images. The logo must remain a vector file. Think about positive and negative space, playing with shapes and consider adding a graphic element to the logo. Please research logos on the web, visit bookstores and look at the logo books and be aware of all logos around you good & bad, so you know what you like and don’t like for your first logo. (1 point)

You may not have any links attached or linked in any of your final 4 logos. (1 point)

Overall look, design concepts such as alignment used, consistent look and feel, rhythm, balance, point, line plane, texture, color, scale, layers Graphic Design Basics, see the link below.
http://gdbasics.com (2 points)

Must be uploaded to Dropbox for final critique in your personal folder in a new folder titled logo and in that folder you will have your .ai file, .pdf file and a picture of the sketches all in the one folder. (1 point)

Make sure you keep in mind the following: target audience and possible applications or uses of your logo in your overall design

If you have any questions or you are confused by this assignment, please do not hesitate to ask.  I am available by email, twitter and appointment to discuss.

10 Points total

 

InDesign Project #3 

3 Page Magazine layout with full page spread

Your favorite magazine called you and needs help. They are hiring you to freelance design a story for the magazine, you will need to design the layout as well as come up with copy for the three pages to place in the magazine. Create the 3-page spread or layout using the application Adobe InDesign.

For this assignment, I will be collecting your digital folder with InDesign file AND PDF as listed below to grade the assignment as listed below.

Assignment Requirements: (total of 10 points)

1. Use master pages. (1 point)

2. Use page numbers in master pages. (1 point)

3. You must import text or the story and have a text file

(Word doc, email file or InDesign file) in your folder (1 point)

4. Have at least 5 running text panes that continue. (1 point)

5. Have at least 5 pictures that can include graphics and logos to be placed on the page and properly

linked up with correct files in folders (1 point)

6. Folders will need to be set up correctly & MUST PACKAGE InDesign FILE + PDF file. 

example: Spin Magazine_YourLastName (1 point)

7. Must have links to pictures. (1 point)

8. Guidelines, 3 pages, 8.5 x 10.5, 3 columns, gutter .25, margins all .5″, facing pages (1 point)

9. Overall look, design concepts such as alignment used, consistent look and feel, rhythm, balance, point, line plane, texture, color, scale, layers (2 points)

Make sure you keep in mind the magazine you are designing for; target audience. Have fun with this project. Please look at magazines they are the best examples and will be the best answers to solving this real-life design challenge. If you have any questions or you are confused by this assignment, please do not hesitate to ask. I am available by email, twitter and appointment to discuss.

InDesign, Fall 2013, Project #2

T/TH class due Tuesday 17 at 12:15, MWF class due Friday 13 at noon.

Business Card (2″ x 3.5″ or 3.5″ x 2″)

margins 1/8 of an inch around all 4 sides.

Letterhead (8.5″ x 11″)

margins 1.5 ” at top, 1 ” L, R & bottom.

#10 business envelope (4 1/8″ x 9 1/2″)

margins 1/2″ each side.

You will create 3 new files in Indesign. Find a hi-res logo of interest online and place it on the Business card, 8.5 x 11 letterhead and #10 business envelope to make a complete business system file. You must utilize placed images. You may copy and paste images and text boxes onto the letterhead and #10 envelope from the original designed business card. All three pieces must be off the same business. Meaning you can’t have a letterhead of McD’s and a business card of BurgerKing.  Think logically about what is needed on each piece. Address, phone number, email address, fax number, All of these can be real or made up. Think about the fonts, serif or san serif, the size of the fonts. Perhaps adding social media elements such as facebook or twitter links and anything else to make it work. Remember to keep design in mind and possibly research online examples of all three to get ideas. All files can be saved as indesign files on your end, but must also be saved as a pdf file in dropbox for me to grade.

Please save the files in the following manner:

Your last name with 108, your section, F13, and project.

lastname108_02_F13_#10 (for #10 envelope)

lastname108_02_F13_BC (for biz card)

lastname108_02_F13_LH (for letterhead)

Power Point Presentation

Fall 2013, Project #1

You will create a 10 slide presentation about an artist, photographer or designer that you really like. The presentation must have the following 2 slides included:

• title slide stating the artist’s name, SART 108 (plus your section,) Fall 2013 and your name.

• last slide will be a work’s cited list and photo credit if there is credit to be given.

Give a BRIEF bio of the artist and then several examples of the artist’s work.

Do not put too much information on one slide. Think about using the slide master to create your headers for your slides. Contrast your type, using both serif and sans serif typefaces. feel free to use bullets.

Use Power Point.

FALL 2012 ASSIGNMENTS

Here are the guidelines for the final portfolio and presentation:

Projects:

1. PowerPoint (DO Not include in final portfolio) (just a check to make sure it was completed)

2. InDesign Business System (must have all three letterhead, BC, #10) (10% of total grade)
3. Magazine 3 page spread (10% of total grade)
4. Personal logo (10% of total grade)
5. CD package (20% of total grade)
6. Facebook Cover (15% of total grade) 851 pixels wide x 312 pixels high

Portfolio (35% of total grade)

Due at 10:00 am or 12:00 pm Friday
Hi res PDF’s only and must be looking good. (no low-res or bitmapped looking pics)
Entire portfolio must be set up in a presentation form as 1 pdf. (with 6 pages in the one pdf)

**Set up in InDesign. Create a new document and make 6 pages, size 16″ length and 16″ width. Keep facing pages unchecked,
Make sure before you export to hi-res pdf all your links and fonts are connected and match up.
I’d suggest packaging the document to make sure then creating a PDf. However I do not need your packages.

Must be labeled as such: KirklandFA12sarts108.pdf

Upload to Dropbox to your named folder

Work in class days Mon and Wed.
Final class Fri. Must be there to present final portfolio to class, or one entire letter grade off final grade will come off. Art must be uploaded by the time you walk into class on Friday. No-one will be allowed to turn on a computer. We will start promptly at 10:00 am or 12:00 pm. If you are late and door is already closed, you will be deducted points off your portfolio grade. Please keep in mind you must participate in class. If your grade is bordering a whole letter, and I know you have actively participated in class, I will move you up to the next letter grade.

I will be grading the changes made to the portfolio from the first round. I will pull up your file from the original assignment and compare the changes to the portfolio. The final critique will be 5 min, each student.

CD Project • Due November 19

You will create a CD, Including the following components:

1. inside 4 panel booklet

2. back cover with spine

3. CD

(you should have the InDesign files of all the above 3 we set up from in class.)

We will print this project out in class and mock it up as an actual CD. Requirements for this project:

This project you must use all 3 applications [Indesign, photoshop & Illustrator.]

You will need to have an organized folder.

You will need to show examples of before and after of the photoshop files.

The project will be uploaded to DropBox and will be due by November 19: 10 am for section 2, and 12 pm for section 1. We will as a class print these out the week of Nov. 26th. You do not need to have the final print out on the 19th, just the finished files. You will have the 12 (2hrs.), 14(2hrs.) and 16 (2hrs.) that is a total of 8 hours to work in class as well as 2 whole weekends. You should plan to spend a total of 12-15 hours on this CD project if not more.

4 Inches of a Square Collaboration

Using all of the photoshop techniques we went over in class, create in Photoshop 4″ length and 4″ width using 300 dpi. Play and have fun manipulating your 4″ square. When you are finished flatten the square in the layers panel and save as a photoshop pdf file. Open the PDF file in Adobe Acrobat and resave as a pdf file.

Retouching Images

There are many reasons that one may wish to retouch images in PhotoShop.  Vintage photographs are often damaged from age, improper storage, or the elements.  Film or prints that are scanned attract dust particles much in the same manner as film in the developing process.  Once an image is digitized, manipulation of the digital file is usually necessary. 

Technique:

Improving image tone with levels

In the following exercise we will learn how to bring back to life images that have lost their dynamic range through time. This is most helpful when using old photographs or can be used with images that were not properly printed in the darkroom.  A vintage tintype photograph was chosen for this example because tintypes typically are much darker than the average photograph and lack detail. The technique demonstrates the range of possibilities available using Black and White point sliders.  A vintage tintype was scanned using a flatbed scanner (tintype.jpg).

  1. Open the tintype.jpg image from the folder
  2. Crop the image to remove unwanted areas from the image
  3. Add a Levels adjustment layer by clicking the Add Adjustment Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette. Or select Layer>New Adjustment>Layer.
  4. Move the white point slider just inside the lightest image information.
  5. Move the black point slider until it falls just inside the darkest image information.
  6. The mid-tone gamma slider then can be used to lighten the overall image.

Damage Control & Repair

Patch Tool or Clone Stamp?

  • The Patch Tool samples texture color and luminosity of the source area.
  • The Clone Stamp literally duplicates the clone source and paints over the original information

-To create a seamless transition from the retouched areas of the image the Healing Brush adds a 10-12 pixel spread to the brush, it is for this reason you should use a hard edge brush when using this tool.  The Clone Stamp is more effective with a softer brush.

-The Healing Brush can only work on layers with actual pixel information. It works better with short brush stokes which allow the program time to calculate individual areas and correct.

-When working along edges that contain white use the clone tool so that you will not be sampling white from the edge.

Using the Clone Stamp:

  1. Select the Clone Stamp tool from the left side of the toolbox or by pressing the “S” key on the keyboard.
  2. Identify an area in which you wish to replace the tone with a matching tone such as a dust spot. Pick a brush that is approximately the same size as the area to be filled with a soft edge.
  3. Move the cursor over an adjacent area that contains a value that is similar to the value you wish to replace. Sample the color by holding down the CMD key (PC: Alt) and click the mouse. This color will appear as the new foreground color in the toolbox.
  4. Move the cursor over the area that you wish to replace the value and click the mouse.  The value will now be replaced with new value.  Changing the opacity in brush dialog box to 50% or lower will allow multiple applications of tone.  Building up tone through multiple applications allows the tone to be applied in a more controlled manner such as spotting.

Using the Patch Tool:

  1. Select the patch tool from the left side of the toolbox or by pressing the “J” key on the keyboard.  Make sure that Destination is checked in the dialog box.
  2. Identify an area in which you wish to replace the tone with a matching tone or in which you wish to smooth out values.
  3. Move the cursor over an adjacent area that contains a value that is similar to the value you wish to replace.  Click and hold down the mouse cursor and create a shape similar to the one that you wish to replace.  Move the cursor over the shape now defined by ‘marching ants’. Click and drag the shape defined by the ‘marching ants’ shape to the location that you wish to cover.  Similar to use of the Clone Stamp, repeated smaller applications are preferred to one large application.

Portraits & Gang Printing

This assignment will focus of the creating four-images with a common theme and then printing these images on one sheet of paper also known as gang printing. Books, magazines, and other printed media are usually printed on one large sheet. The sheet is then cut and assembled and bound to form a book or other document.  The photographic artist or designer must take care to make sure that images that are printed have uniform contrast and levels so that they may be printed simultaneously with other images. Gang printing can also be a great proofing tool in the final selection of images for a project.

First we will take a look at techniques that can be used to aid you with the development of your concept. We will then focus on the techniques required to assemble your four images for printing on a single-sheet of paper.

Image Creation Techniques:

Removing Backgrounds

Adobe Photoshop CS5

Adobe CS5 Hair Masking

(Martin Evening)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ssJRkbkHAa4

Adobe Photoshop CS4 and earlier

  • Open the photo take contains the image that you wish to extract from the background. Then go to Filter>Extract. (The Extract tool will only work in 8-bit mode). If you have a RAW image convert by using Image>Mode>RGB Color>8-Bit.
  • You will now be in the Extract dialog box, press the letter b to make the edge highlighter active or click on the top tool box that looks like a marker. Use a brush that is large enough to create a line that contains part of the object you wish to remove and part of the background. Brackets left & right will allow you to change brush thickness on the fly. When you have created a closed loop by either returning to the source point or by border, fill the area with the paint bucket tool.
  • If the area that you wish to remove is filled in blue, press OK. Should the blue spill out into unwanted areas, go to Edit>Step Backwarduse the highlighter to contain the area and then fill with bucket again, then press OK.
  • Fix-up the image by making a duplicate of the layer by pressing CMD-J to restore some of the ‘drop-outs’ then select CMD-E to merge the two layers together.
  • You can use the history brush or eraser tool to add back or further remove areas seen on the checkerboard transparent grid.
  • Next open the photo that you wish to use as a background and put it behind the object that you have extracted.

TIP: It is a good idea to take the background and move it onto the extracted object so that you can touch things up with the history brush tool. The most frequently used approach is to move the extracted selection on to the background image, while this will work you lose the ability to use the history brush in subsequent editing.

Adding Background Color

  • Use the eye dropper tool (I) and select a color from an image by positioning the eye dropper tool over the area to be sampled, click and the color sampled will now become the foreground color. To select a color from the Pantone color library: position the eye dropper tool over the foreground color tool box and click. Select the desired color by sampling it from the field or type in an exact color using the specific RGB color number.

TIP: Check the Web Only Colors box if the image will primarily  be used on the World Wide Web.

Color Emphasis

  • Open a color image that you wish to have portions in color and portions rendered in Black & White.
  • Select Image>Mode>Grayscale
  • When the dialog box with Discard color information? Appears, select OK.
  • The image will turn to Black & White.
  • Select Image>Mode>RGB Color
  • Select the History Brush by pushing the Y key.
  • Now paint back the areas that you want in color using the brush.

Sizing & Positioning Techniques:

There are numerous techniques that can be used for sizing images and positioning them within a document. Here are a few that should be helpful for most applications:

 To position any size photo in any size document

  • Open or create the document that is to contain the image.
  • Open the image that is to be inserted and press CMD-T this will open the Free Transform tool. Use the Move tool (V) to move the image on to the new document.
  • Press CMD-0 (Zero) to show the bounding box and reveal the all the handles of the Free Transform box.
  • Hold down the shift key (to maintain proportions) to move and resize the image within the new document. When you are satisfied with the image placement press Return (Enter).

To Position images to selected destinations (Measurements)

  • Open or create a new document (File>New)

Change pixels to inches from drop-down menu (8.5×11) Use a resolution of 300dpi / Color mode: RGB

  • Under the view menu select Rulers to make the Ruler visible
  • Use Guides to place position markers (View>New Guide)
  • select either Horizontal or Vertical from the orientation box and then the distance in inches or select 0 (default) as the distance and use the Move tool to position the Guide
  • Use the Move tool to position the image to the respective Guide marker.

Panoramic Images

The majority of cameras whether using film or digital media take image in proportions of 2:3 or 4:5 format. The standard 35mm film frame is 24mm x36 mm, a relationship in which the height is 2/3 the length. The standard photographic paper sizes of 5×7 & 11×14 approximate those proportions. The two most common large-format cameras use either 4×5 or 8×10 inch film and the paper sizes of 4×5, 8×10, 16×20, and 20×24 are in proportion to these film sizes.  This was not always the case; formats like 4×10, 7×11 and a variety of others were used in what were called ‘banquet’ cameras. These large-format cameras with lengths that were two, three or four times the height were used to photograph large banquets or gatherings.  Landscape photographers to create a greater feeling of space and expanse to their images also used them.  Digital Photography has rekindled the interest in these panoramic images since several images can be stitched or merger together in PhotoShop without the need for a special camera. Panoramic images can be created that combine two, three, four or more images together to create expansive

Views of space or create new realities.

Camera Technique:

There are several typical methods used in the taking of panoramic images:

1)    Remaining equidistant from the object being photographed such as a row of stores, houses, or wall and take a series of images that contain areas of overlap from one image to the next.

2)    Groupings of objects or individuals can be photographed on a similar background or environment and assembled to create a larger group.

3)    A camera can be rotated around a fixed point to create an expanse that can extend to a full 360 degrees.

Tips:

  • In each of these techniques the use of a tripod is recommended to facilitate proper alignment from one image to the next in your panorama.
  • It is suggested that you allow approximately 10-15% extra space at the top and bottom of each image that you plan to assemble. In panoramic images approaching or exceeding 180 degrees a vertical rather than horizontal format may be desirable when taking images
  • An area of 10-15% overlap is necessary along the left hand side of each successive frame you plan to merge together.

PhotoShop Technique:

 Panoramic Stitching in PhotoShop

  1. Open the image that will begin your panorama and will appear on the left of your panorama.
  2. Under the Image menu click on Image Size (Image > Image Size) and take note of the width of your image under Document Size, then click OK.
  3. Count the number of images that will be used to create your panorama and multiply that number by the width of the image in the previous step.
  4. Click on Image > Canvas Size and change the width-dimension to the width that you calculated in the previous step. Change the Anchor point from the middle to the left by clicking on the arrow on the left-hand side in the middle.  Change the Canvas Extension Color to White. Click OK.
  5. Open the second the second image in your panorama and click on the Move Tool or activate it by pressing the letter V on the keyboard.
  6. Use the mouse to click on the second image and drag it into to the white space to the right of the image in the canvas.  Slide the opacity slider in the Layers palette to 75% and use the mouse to align the second image over the first.  When the two images are aligned properly (you may have to use the transform tool to correct perspective), restore the opacity and bring the next piece of the panorama on to the new canvas.
  7. Balance and color correct all layers of the image until all layers obtain a consistent range of values present in the final image.

Using Photomerge

  1. Open the files that you wish to create a panorama or have them in a separate folder to be opened.
  2. Under File select Automate then Photomerge. Select either open files or choose a folder from the dialog box.
  3. Click either normal or perspective.
  4. Check the ‘Keep as layers’ box
  5. Photomerge will arrange the images to the best of its ability.

Balance and color correct all layers of the image until all layers obtain a consistent range of values present in the final imagePhotoshop Lesson 2

Color Spaces of monitors/printers and applications

Basics
The term color model is used to describe the colors that we work with in digital photography.

There are three color models that are in use at the present time which are RGB, CMYK and Lab.  The color model lets you know how the color is being formed or composed, we then use the term color space to further define the range or gamut of the colors being used.  In the RGB color model there are many different color spaces, among them Adobe RGB, sRGB, and Apple RGB. While all three of these color spaces use the same three colors the gamut of each of these color spaces is different.  Each device has its own color space and the numerical values only have exact meaning within their own color space.  An artist that was using paint would understand that the color cadmium yellow from three different manufacturers would yield three similar but different colors. If you a color to match, you purchase the color from the same manufacturer. This analogy is very appropriate when working with a digital palette. In order for your colors to be rendered correctly they must be in the correct color space for each device that is being used. Each device that produces a digital image has a color space, the monitor has a color space, the application software has a color space, and the printer has its own color space. In the production of color prints with printers different color spaces are necessary for different papers.  This is very similar to Black and White printing in a traditional ‘wet’ darkroom. You may make a print with a little more contrast if printed on a matte surface paper than a glossy surface.  It is understood that a dry print will look different from a wet print, in the same way that you should understand that an image on a monitor will look very different from a print made from ink.  The color space attempts to balance the range or gamut of colors for each device.

 

Color Models

 Lab Color

The L*a*b color model is based on the model proposed by the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE) in 1931 as an international standard for color measurement. In 1976, this model was refined and named CIE L*a*b.

L*a*b color is designed to be device independent, creating consistent color regardless of the device (such as a monitor, printer, computer, or scanner) used to create or output the image.L*a*b color consists of a luminance or lightness component (L) and two chromatic components: the a component (from green to red) and the b component (from blue to yellow).

L*a*b* model: A. Luminance =100 (white) B. Green to red component C. Blue to yellow component D. Luminance = 0 (black)

*To experiment with this color model:  IMAGE>ADJUSTMENTS>HUE / SATURATION

 

RGB Color

A large percentage of the visible spectrum can be represented by mixing red, green, and blue (RGB) colored light in various proportions and intensities. Where the colors overlap, they create cyan, magenta, yellow, and white. Because the RGB colors combine to create white, they are also called additive colors. Adding all colors together creates white–that is, all visible wavelengths are transmitted back to the eye. Additive colors are used for lighting, video, and monitors.

*To experiment with this color model:  IMAGE>ADJUSTMENTS>CHANNEL MIXER

CMYK Color

The CMYK model is based on the light-absorbing quality of ink printed on paper. As white light strikes translucent inks, certain visible wavelengths are absorbed while others are reflected back to your eyes.

In theory, pure cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) pigments should combine to absorb all light and produce black. For this reason these colors are called subtractive colors. Because all printing inks contain some impurities, these three inks actually produce a muddy brown and must be combined with black (K) ink to produce a true black. (K is used instead of B to avoid confusion with blue.) Combining these inks to reproduce color is called four-color process printing.

The subtractive (CMY) and additive (RGB) colors are complementary colors. Each pair of subtractive colors creates an additive color, and vice versa.

*To experiment with this color model:  IMAGE>ADJUSTMENTS>COLOR BALANCE

 

GAMUT

A gamut is the range of colors that a color system can display or print. The spectrum of colors seen by the human eye is wider than the gamut available in any color model.

Among the color models used in Photoshop, L*a*b has the largest gamut, encompassing all colors in the RGB and CMYK gamuts. Typically, RGB gamuts contain the subset of these colors that can be viewed on a computer or television monitor (which emits red, green, and blue light). Therefore, some colors, such as pure cyan or pure yellow, can’t be displayed accurately on a monitor.

CMYK gamuts are smaller, consisting only of colors that can be printed using process-color inks. When colors that cannot be printed are displayed on-screen, they are referred to as out-of-gamut colors–that is, outside a CMYK gamut.

Color management

Color management is the process of producing consistent color through reconciling the differences within the color spaces of the various devices that we are using in our process. In order for color management to be effective it is necessary to assign a profile to the image.  A profile can be assigned by the camera, scanner or by the software such as Photoshop. The color management system identifies the color through a reference system. The color management system needs to know the destination color space so that the image on the screen can properly translate the values for either RGB or CMYK devices. Device profiles are either supplied by the manufacturer or created using software.

COLOR SETTINGS

Color settings can be found under the Edit Menu > Color Settings

Converting colors to a different color space usually involves an adjustment of the colors to accommodate the gamut of the destination color space. Different translation methods use different rules to determine how the source colors are adjusted; for example, colors that fall inside the destination gamut may remain unchanged, or they may be adjusted to preserve the original range of visual relationships as translated to a smaller destination gamut. These translation methods are known as rendering intents because each technique is optimized for a different intended use of color graphics.

Note: The result of choosing a rendering intent depends on the graphical content of documents and on the profiles used to specify color spaces. Some profiles produce identical results for different rendering intents. Differences between rendering intents are apparent only when you print a document or convert it to a different color space.

The following rendering intent options are available.

Perceptual

Known as the Image intent in Adobe InDesign and Illustrator, Perceptual aims to preserve the visual relationship between colors in a way that is perceived as natural to the human eye, although the color values themselves may change. This intent is most suitable for photographic images.

Saturation

Known as the Graphics intent in Adobe InDesign and Illustrator, Saturation aims to create vivid color at the expense of accurate color. It scales the source gamut to the destination gamut, but preserves relative saturation instead of hue, so when scaling to a smaller gamut, hues may shift. This rendering intent is suitable for business graphics, where the exact relationship between colors is not as important as having bright saturated colors.

Relative Colorimetric

This intent is identical to Absolute Colorimetric except for the following difference: Relative Colorimetric compares the white point of the source color space to that of the destination color space and shifts all colors accordingly. Although the perceptual rendering intent has traditionally been the most common choice for photographic imagery, Relative Colorimetric –with the Use Black Point Compensation option selected in the Color Settings dialog box–can be a better choice for preserving color relationships without sacrificing color accuracy. Relative Colorimetric is the default rendering intent used by all predefined configurations in the Settings menu of the Color Settings dialog box.

Absolute Colorimetric

Leaves colors that fall inside the destination gamut unchanged. This intent aims to maintain color accuracy at the expense of preserving relationships between colors. When translating to a smaller gamut, two colors that are distinct in the source space may be mapped to the same color in the destination space. Absolute Colorimetric can be more accurate if the image’s color profile contains correct white point (extreme highlight) information.

Using black-point compensation

The Use Black Point Compensation option controls whether to adjust for differences in black points when converting colors between color spaces. When this option is selected, the full dynamic range of the source space is mapped into the full dynamic range of the destination space. When deselected, the dynamic range of the source space is simulated in the destination space; although this mode can result in blocked or gray shadows, it can be useful when the black point of the source space is darker than that of the destination space.

The Use Black Point Compensation option is selected for all predefined configurations in the Settings menu of the Color Settings dialog box. It is highly recommended that you keep this option selected.

The Use Dither (8-bit/channel images) option controls whether to dither colors when converting 8-bit-per-channel images between color spaces. When this option is selected, Photoshop mixes colors in the destination color space to simulate a missing color that existed in the source space. Although dithering helps to reduce the blocky or banded appearance of an image, it may also result in larger file sizes when images are compressed for Web use.

Desaturating monitor colors

The Desaturate Monitor Colors By option controls whether to desaturate colors by the specified amount when displayed on the monitor. When selected, this option can aid in visualizing the full range of color spaces with gamuts larger than that of the monitor. However, this causes a mismatch between the monitor display and the output. When the option is deselected, distinct colors in the image may display as a single color.

Space & Depth-of-field

We generally perceive objects that are fairly close to us as sharp and in focus, objects that are far away from us seem less perceptible to the human eye. The only exception to this might be objects viewed in very close proximity to our eyes. A piece of paper that is viewed very close to our face usually causes us to squint our eyes to obtain focus. Squinting forces our pupils to contract or close forming a smaller opening in the center of the eye, this smaller opening or aperture forces the various rays of light that form the image to come into focus.

In photography we use sharpness and focus as a means of creating a spatial relationship with the viewer. Depth-of-field is a technique that allows the photographer the ability to control what is in focus and what is out of focus (blur). The use of a small opening or aperture (f16) allows more of the objects in the image to appear as sharp.  Larger openings or apertures (f 4) create images in which only the object that was focused upon may appear sharp and other objects appear less in focus as their distance from the object in focus increases. Apertures are designated by a lower-case italicized f ( f ) to avoid confusion with shutter speed numbers.  The numbers denote the proportion of potential light that the lens can deliver that will strike the image sensor. An aperture such as f4 delivers 1/4 of the maximum light that is available; an aperture of f16 will deliver 1/16th of the light available for image creation. An image renders all the objects as sharp and in focus possesses a large depth-of-field.  Images with only a small amount of focus on a defined spot are said to have shallow depth-of-field

Sharpness or Depth-of-field increases in a ratio of 1/3 in the front & 2/3 in the rear of a subject or in other words a greater amount of sharpness is created behind the subject than in front of the subject.  The closer we are to objects the more shallow the depth-of-field, the farther away we are from objects the greater the depth-of-field and the less the perception of differences in sharpness between objects.

Technique: 

Focus Vignette Effect

­

  • Make two copies of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Make the top layer (Layer 1 copy) inactive by clicking on the eye icon to the left of the layer in the layers palette.
  • Make the center layer active by clicking on Layer 1 in the layers palette. Using the main menu bar select Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur to give the image the amount of blur you desire. Sliding the Radius Slider will create more or less blur. The higher the number of pixels the greater the blur. (Note: checking & un-checking the Preview box will let you view the changes) When you are satisfied click OK.
  • Make the top layer active by clicking on Layer 1 copy in the layers palette. Select the area you would like to have in focus defining the area using one of the marquee or lasso tools in the top left of the toolbox. Using the main menu bar click on Select > Feather and select a feather radius of 25 pixels, then click OK. (Note: the larger the radius the softer the transition from sharpness to softness. In addition, a larger file needs a larger radius to effect the same gradation as a smaller file).
  • Add a Layer Mask by clicking on the layer mask icon at the bottom of layers palette.
  • This effect can often be more realistic if performed several times to diminish focus gradually or to create a change in blur between foreground and background objects. Do this by saving the image under a different name then flattening the image under the layer menu. You can recreate this effect again and again once an image is flattened.

Variation using Box Blur in later editions of Photoshop

  • Open an image in Photoshop. Double click on the background layer in the layers palette. When New Layer dialog both appears with Layer 0, click OK to make the background layer an active layer.
  • Select the area you wish to remain in focus using one of the selection tools (marquee, lasso, or quick).
  • Go to the Select Menu at the top and click on Inverse to reverse the selected area.
  • Go to the Select Menu at the top and click on Modify>Feather>Feather Radius to adjust the amount of feathering.
  • Go to the Filter Menu and select Filter>Box Blur>Radius.
  • Use ‘Save As’ to save the changes under a new file name and leave the original unchanged.

Motion Blur

We looked at how through the use of depth-of-field and the focus vignette effect images are often more effective in conveying a message if less of the image is sharp and in focus. Creating areas of the image that are sharp and in focus against regions that are blurred heightens visual interest through the use of hard-line/soft-line. Motion and speed can have a similar effect on photographic images by creating areas of blur that contrast against the crispness of static objects.  Traditional photographic techniques rely primarily on the use of shutter-speed to obtain images that produce the right amount of blur against combined with relative degree of sharpness.  Producing these images can be quite time consuming as a number of factors must be considered; the shutter-speed, speed of the moving object, and whether or not the camera is on a tripod. A fast shutter-speed will produce a crisp image that freezes the action, but this does not show motion, it is the antithesis of motion. Blur is an essential tool in conveying the feeling of motion and speed to the viewer. Two photographic techniques are most often used to achieve this effect: 1) The blur of an object in motion in contrast to the sharpness of a static object.

2) Tracking a moving object in the camera viewfinder while using a slow shutter-speed (panning) to produce a relatively sharp moving object in contrast to a blurred background.

 

Technique:

Motion Blur Effect

­

  • Make a copy of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Under the Filter menu select Blur > Motion Blur. A dialog box will appear with both an angle clock and a distance slider.
  • Use the clock to set the angle (direction) of motion. Generally we would set this angle parallel to the angle of motion of the object in the image. Changing the numeric degrees in the dialog box can make slight changes to the angle. The distance slider will lengthen or shorten the length of the blur. Click OK when you are satisfied.
  • Hold down the Option Key (PC: Alt-key) while clicking on the layer mask icon in the bottom of the layers palette.
  • Push the “X” key on the keyboard to make the foreground color in the toolbox ‘white’.
  • Select a brush with a soft edge from the toolbox and paint on the areas where you want to apply the motion blur.  You may wish to slide the opacity slider down to 50% to apply the effect in a more gradual manner.

Panning Effect

  • Make two copies of the image that is open using CMD-J (PC: Ctrl-J)
  • Make the top layer (Layer 1 copy) inactive by clicking on the eye icon to the left of the layer in the layers palette.
  • Make the center layer active by clicking on Layer 1 in the layers palette. Using the main menu bar select Filter > Blur > Motion Blur. A dialog box will appear with both an angle clock and a distance slider.
  • Use the clock to set the angle (direction) of motion. Generally we would set this angle parallel to the angle of motion of the object in the image. Changing the numeric degrees in the dialog box can make slight changes to the angle. The distance slider will lengthen or shorten the length of the blur. Click OK when you are satisfied.

Make the top layer active by clicking on Layer 1 copy in the layers palette. Select the area you would like to have in focus defining the area using one of the marquee or lasso tools in the top left of the toolbox. Add a Layer Mask by clicking on the layer mask icon at the bottom of layers palette.

SARTS 108 • Professor Bridget Kirkland • Fall 2012

Digital Camera

Basics
A computer or other digital device uses numbers (digits) to represent data in what is known as binary code. Binary is a mathematical system working with two digits 1s and 0s that are called bits. A digital image is just a long string of 1s and 0s that represent all the pixels (picture elements) that make up an image. To digitize an image you have two options:

  • You can take a photograph using a conventional film camera, process the film and then use a scanner to sample the print or negative and record the pattern of light as a series of pixel values.
  • You can directly sample the original light that bounces off your subject, immediately breaking that light pattern down into a series of pixel values by using a digital camera.

A digital camera, like a traditional film camera, has a series of lenses that focus light to create an image of a scene. Instead of focusing this light onto a piece of film, it focuses it onto a semiconductor device that records light electronically. A computer then breaks this electronic information down into digital data.

  • Digital Cameras
    The major differences between a digital camera and a traditional film camera is that the digital camera has no film. In the same way that light strikes silver halides on film, light energy is changed into electrical charges which either turn pixels on or off and assign either a 1 or 0 value to the area. To construct images of greater complexity, 8-bit groups called bytes are employed to represent complex images or numbers. The more bits available per pixel, the greater the ability to render slight nuances in detail. The image sensor replaces film in a digital camera. The image sensor used by most digital cameras is a charge-coupled device (CCD). Some other digital cameras use complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Think of them as nearly identical devices. The CCD is a collection of tiny light-sensitive diodes, which converts photons (light) into electrons (electrical charge). These diodes are called photosites. Each photosite is sensitive to light — the brighter the light that hits a single photosite, the greater the electrical charge that will accumulate at that site. An analog-to-digital converter turns each pixel’s value into a digital value.

Resolution

The amount of detail that the camera can capture is called the resolution, and it is measured in pixels. The more pixels your camera has, the more detail it can capture. The more detail you have, the more you can blow up a picture before it becomes “grainy” and starts to look out-of-focus.

Some typical resolutions that you find in digital cameras today include:

  • 640 x 480 pixels – Commonly designated an email setting on most cameras as well as the resolution used by camera phones.
  • 1536 x 1024 pixels – If you are planning to print your images, this is a good minimum resolution for 4×6 and 5×7 images. This is a “megapixel” image size — 1.6 megapixels.
  • 2048 x 1360 pixels – This is “medium resolution.” Images taken with this resolution can be printed in larger sizes, such as 8×10 inches, with good results. This resolution is almost three million total pixels. This is equivalent to cameras in the 2.8-3.2 megapixel range.
  • 3072 x 2048 pixels – This “high resolution” setting allows large prints to be made without loss of image quality. Prints up to 20×24 inch or larger are possible at this resolution. Cameras in the 5-6.2 megapixel range will have this as a large or fine setting

You may or may not need lots of resolution, depending on what you want to do with your pictures. If you are planning to do nothing more than display images on a Web page or send them in e-mail, then using 640×480 resolution has several advantages:

  • Your camera’s memory will hold more images at this low resolution than at higher resolutions.
  • It will take less time to move the images from the camera to your computer.
  • The images will take up less space on your computer.

On the other hand, if your goal is to print large images, you definitely want to take high-resolution shots and need a camera with lots of pixels.

Kodak recommends the following as minimum resolutions for different print sizes:

Print Size Megapixels Image Resolution
Wallet 0.3 640×480 pixels
4×5 inches 0.4 768×512 pixels
5×7 inches 0.8 1152×768 pixels
8×10 inches 1.6 1536×1024 pixels

Digitizing Information
The current generation of digital sensors are smaller than film. Typical film emulsions that are exposed in a film-based camera measure 24mm x 36mm. As you’ll see in a later section, a smaller sensor means smaller focal length lenses to produce images equivalent to your 35mm-film camera. Digital SLR’s (DSLR) are becoming more and more affordable. The lenses from your 35mm film SLR will often fit a DSLR, however the film lens will be equivalent to approximately 1.5x the focal length on your digital camera.

Storage
Early generations of digital cameras had fixed storage inside the camera. You needed to connect the camera directly to a computer by cables to transfer the images. Although most of today’s cameras are capable of connecting to a serial, parallel, SCSI, and/or USB port, they usually provide you with some sort of removable storage device.

There are a number of storage systems currently used in digital cameras:

  • Built-in memory – Some extremely inexpensive cameras have built-in Flash memory.
  • SmartMedia cards – SmartMedia cards are small Flash memory modules.
  • CompactFlash – CompactFlash cards are another form of Flash memory, similar to but slightly larger than SmartMedia cards.
  • Memory Stick – Memory Stick is a proprietary form of Flash memory used by Sony.
  • Hard disk – Some higher-end cameras use small built-in hard disks, or PCMCIA hard-disk cards, for image storage.
  • Writeable CD and DVD – Some of the newest cameras are using writeable CD and DVD drives to store images.

In order to transfer the files from a Flash memory device to your computer without using cables, you will need to have a drive or reader for your computer. These devices behave much like floppy drives and are inexpensive to buy. Think of all these storage devices as reusable digital film. When you fill one up, either transfer the data or put another one into the camera. The different types of Flash memory devices are not interchangeable. Each camera manufacturer has decided on one device or another. Each of the Flash memory devices also needs some sort of caddy or card reader in order to transfer the data.

Image capacity & storage
There are several other formats, but for now we’ll discuss these two. The main difference between storage media is their capacity: The capacity of a floppy disk is fixed, and the capacity of Flash memory devices is increasing all the time. This is fortunate because picture size is also increasing constantly, as higher resolution cameras become available.

The two main file formats used by digital cameras are TIFF and JPEG. TIFF is an uncompressed format and JPEG is a compressed format. Most cameras use the JPEG file format for storing pictures, and they sometimes offer quality settings (such as medium or high). The following chart will give you an idea of the file sizes you might expect with different picture sizes.

Image Size TIFF
(uncompressed)
JPEG
(high quality)
JPEG
(medium quality)
640×480 1.0 MB 300 KB 90 KB
800×600 1.5 MB 500 KB 130 KB
1024×768 2.5 MB 800 KB 200 KB
1600×1200 6.0 MB 1.7 MB 420 KB

For Internet publishing and e-mailing pictures to friends, you almost never need a picture bigger than 640×480, and you will almost always save it in JPEG form. If you are trying to store the biggest, highest quality images you can, then you will want the highest capacity medium.

Aperture and Shutter Speed
The word camera comes from the term camera obscura. Camera means room (or chamber) and obscura means dark. In other words, a camera is a dark room. The aperture is the size of the opening in the camera. It’s located behind the lens. On a bright sunny day, the light reflected off your image may be very intense, and it doesn’t take very much of it to create a good picture. In this situation, you want a small aperture. But on a cloudy day, or in twilight, the light is not so intense and the camera will need more light to create an image. In order to allow more light, the aperture must be enlarged. Your eye works the same way. When you are in the dark, the iris of your eye dilates your pupil (that is, it makes it very large). When you go out into bright sunlight, your iris contracts and it makes your pupil very small. If you can find a willing partner and a small flashlight, this is easy to demonstrate (if you do this, please use a small flashlight, like the ones they use in a doctor’s office). Look at your partner’s eyes, then shine the flashlight in and watch the pupil’s contract. Move the flashlight away, and the pupils will dilate.

Shutter Speed
Traditionally, the shutter speed is the amount of time that light is allowed to pass through the aperture. Think of a mechanical shutter as a window shade. It is placed across the back of the aperture to block out the light. Then, for a fixed amount of time, it opens and closes. The amount of time it is open is the shutter speed. One way of getting more light into the camera is to decrease the shutter speed — in other words, leave the shutter open for a longer period of time. Film-based cameras must have a mechanical shutter. Once you expose film to light, it can’t be wiped clean to start again. Therefore, it must be protected from unwanted light. But the sensor in a digital camera can be reset electronically and used over and over again. This is called a digital shutter. Some digital cameras employ a combination of electrical and mechanical shutters.

Lens and Focal Length

Since many photographers that use film-based cameras are familiar with the focal lengths that project an image onto 35mm film, digital cameras advertise their focal lengths with “35mm equivalents.” This is extremely helpful information to have. In the chart below, you can compare the actual focal lengths of a typical Digital SLR (DSLR) camera and its equivalent in a 35mm film camera.

DSLR

 35mm View Uses
18mm 28 mm Things look smaller and farther away. Wide-angle shots, landscapes, large buildings, groups of people
32mm 50 mm Things look about the same as what your eye sees. “Normal” shots of people and objects
70mm 105 mm Things are magnified and appear closer. Telephoto shots, close-ups

Illustrator Personal Name logo

Fall 2012 Project #4

Take your whole name or a part of your name to create a personal logo. Page size needs to be 12″ x 12.” The only program you may use is Illustrator. Must set up paper with 4 distinct quadrants and have four final examples to show the class for critique. Use the paper/space around the 12 x 12 area to sketch out all of your designs and keep them there for viewing in the .ai file. The logo can be B&W and you may add one more color. You may also use gradients of that color. All 4 quadrants must utilize the same color and the same name. Use all the illustrator effects you have been shown in class. Think about positive and negative space and you may add a graphic element to the name. You may not have any links attached in the final piece. Please save your .ai file as well as a hi-res pdf. File must be named _________logo.

3 Page Magazine layout with full page spread

Fall 2012 Project #3

Create a 3-page spread or layout using InDesign. Your favorite magazine called you and needs to outsource a story design for their magazine. The first page starts on the right side and the full page spread follows with a left and a right page. You must use master pages with page numbers. You must also import type and have text panes that continue. At least 5 pictures or graphics must be placed on the page. Make sure you keep in mind the magazine you are designing for. Keep the look and feel in mind for your right target audience. A magazine folder is required with a text import file such as word, your InDesign file and a folder titled links that includes all the links to the images you placed in the file. You must also create a pdf file for that folder.

InDesign Business Card, Letterhead and #10 business envelope

Fall 2012, Project #2

You will create 3 new files in Indesign. Find a hi-res logo of interest online and place it on the Business card, 8.5 x 11 letterhead and #10 business envelope to make a complete business system file. You must utilize placed images. You may copy and paste images and text boxes onto the letterhead and #10 envelope from the original designed business card. Think logically about what is needed on each piece. Address, phone number, email address, fax number, perhaps facebook or twitter link and anything else to make it work. Remember to keep design in mind and possibly research online examples of all three to get ideas. All files can be saved as indesign files, but must also be saved as a pdf for me to grade off of.

Power Point Presentation

Fall 2012, Project #1

You will create a 10 slide presentation about an artist, photographer or designer that you really like. You will have a title slide stating the artist’s name, SART 108 (plus your section,) Fall 2012 and your name. The last slide will be a work’s cited list and photo credit if there is credit to be given. Give a BRIEF bio of the artist and then several examples of the artist’s work. Do not put too much information on one slide. Think about using the slide master to create your headers for your slides. Contrast your type, using both serif and sans serif typefaces.

You will have the option to use Microsoft Power Point, Keynote (apple program) or InDesign.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: